Oideas - Eanáir 2004
é atá in Oideas sraith de cheachtanna aistriúcháin
atá bunaithe ar na ceardlanna ‘Ó Bhéarla go Gaeilge’
a reáchtáladh faoi choimirce Fhoras na Gaeilge le linn 2001/2002.
Ó mhí go mí, beifear ag cur síos ar ghnéithe den aistriúchán a chothaíonn fadhbanna d’aistritheoirí. Cuirfear ceachtanna agus aistriúcháin shamplacha ar fáil freisin, chun gur féidir le haistritheoirí dul i ngleic leis na fadhbanna éagsúla.
LE HAGHAIDH LIOSTA NA GCEACHTANNA AR FAD GO DTÍ SEO)
(Is é an chéad leabhar eile atá le foilsiú sa tsraith ‘Athchló’ ná Studies in Modern Irish, Part II leis an Athair Gearóid Ó Nualláin, a d’fhoilsigh Comhlacht Oideachais na hÉireann sa bhliain 1920. Ba ar an aistriúchán ó Bhéarla go Gaeilge a dhírigh an Nuallánach san imleabhar seo. Ba é an cur chuige a bhí aige ná sleachta Béarla a thabhairt agus iarraidh ar léitheoirí iad a aistriú. Cuireann sé a aistriúchán féin i láthair ansin, chomh maith le tráchtaireacht ar phointí deacrachta sa téacs. Tá cuid de na téacsanna, ar téacsanna liteartha ar fad iad, seanaimseartha go maith, agus tá cuid de na ‘rialacha aistriúcháin’ a mholann an Nuallánach róghinearálta ar fad. Ina ainneoin sin ar fad, is leabhar ar fónamh é agus gheobhaidh aistritheoirí comhairle a leasa ann.)
Seo thíos an chéad cheacht aistriúcháin, a thabharfaidh blaiseadh daoibh ar a bhfuil sa leabhar. Antain Mac Lochlainn agus Ariel Killick a chóirigh an téacs bunaidh.
Gaeilge a chur ar an mBéarla seo:-
There was something fascinating in the spectacle of that beautiful steamship, rolling securely in the heavy sea, revealing as she went over to starboard her noble graceful hull, to within a few feet of her keel. But there was also something unspeakable dreadful to us to see help so close at hand, and yet of no more use than had it offered a thousand miles away. There was a man on her bridge, and others doubtless watched our vessel, unseen by us; and God knows what sensations must have been excited in them by the sight of our torn and whirling ship, blindly rushing before the tempest, her sails in rages, the half-hoisted ensign bitterly illustrating our miserable condition, and appealing, with a power and pathos no human cry could express, for help which could not be given. – (The Wreck of the Grosvenor.)
Notice, in the first place, that there is too much detail in the opening sentence. We shall therefore make two out of it. There is no adjective corresponding to ‘fascinating’ in Irish. Here, we may express the meaning by using ‘ionadh agus alltacht.’ For ‘spectacle’ use the concrete ‘féachaint’. This will be more natural than to try to turn by ‘radharc’, or any such noun. ‘Steamship,’ – ‘long’ will do very well for this. Certain details in English are only cumbersome, and better omitted in translation. Here, e.g., we should have been told already, in the preceding context, that it was a steamship. There would be no point in the repetition. ‘Rolling,’ – this is properly something which the vessel suffered, not something which it did. Irish thus expresses it – ‘í á luascadh’. ‘Securely’ – Use a negative expression with ‘beann’. Single adverbs will frequently be translated by phrases in Irish. ‘The heaving sea’ – We may say ‘i measc na mórthonn,’ and bring out the meaining of ‘heavy’ by transferring the epithet to ‘luascadh’ – ‘í á luascadh go breá tromaí’. (Not trom.) ‘Revealing.’ – The English present participle requires careful treatment. Here, we begin a new sentence –‘D’fhaightí radharc ar ...’ Irish avoids the personification implied in ‘revealing.’ ‘Hull’ – Say ‘adhmad a sleasa’, and omit the adjectives ‘noble, graceful’ altogether. They are out of place in the Irish picture. We have described the vessel as ‘long álainn’ already. That is quite sufficient. ‘To within a few feet, etc.’ We need not be quite so mathematical. ‘Síos nach mór go cíle’ will do very well. Notice the omission of ‘her’. ‘As she went over to starboard’ Here again it is not so much a question of activity as of passivity – ‘nuair a luaisctí í deiseal le troime neart na gaoithe.’ ‘But there was also...’ Here we may supply the connecting link with first sentence by inserting – ‘b’iontach an radharc é. Ach...,’ ‘Unspeakably dreadful.’ – In Irish, as in Latin, such phrases are turned by two adjectives (or nouns) of kindred meaning – ‘ba thrua agus ba nimhneach...’ ‘and yet of no more’ – ‘ach chomh beag is dá...’ ‘ a thousand miles’ ‘na céadta míle.’ ‘God knows.’ The emphasis is rather upon human ignorance than God’s knowledge. Say therefore – ‘ní fíos ach do Dhia na glóire.’
‘torn... whirling... rushing.’ – These will be expressed by verbal nouns. ‘blindly rushing before’ – there is metaphor and personification here. Say ‘á tiomáint ar buile roimhe...’
‘bitterly illustrating’ – omit ‘bitterly’ and use ‘comhartha’ for ‘illustrating.’ ‘which could not be given.’ Express this as an independent observation. In many cases the English relative, if translated literally, would be quite ludicrous in Irish. The whole passage will be:-
(CLICEÁIL ANSEO LE hAGHAIDH AN TÉACS AISTRITHE)
|Oideas||Léirmheas||Foclóirí agus Liostaí Téarmaíochta|